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5. The Reconquista

In the year 711 A.D., the Moors began the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, also known as Spain and Portugal. The Moors conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula, up to the border with France. This domination by the Moors lasted until 1492. A.D.
The dominion by the Moors of the Iberian Peninsula was complete. Nevertheless, from the outset, the Spanish engaged in a Reconquista, the reconquering of Spanish land.
Piece by piece, or say, Kingdom by Kingdom, the Spanish took back the land held by the Moors. The Reconquista took the Spanish more than 800 years. Finally, in 1492 A.D., the Moors surrendered their last holdout, Granada, to Spain.
The reason that the Spanish were able to reconquer their land is that there was never integration by the Spanish with the Moors.
The Spanish and the Jews maintained their identity separate from the Moors. The Spanish never forgot that the Iberian Peninsula belonged to the Spanish.
In 1846 A.D., under the justification that "Might Makes Right" and under the auspices of the then U.S. President James K. Polk, and his "Manifest Destiny" philosophy, the United States invaded Mexico and took one-half of Mexico’s land. This land includes most of the Southwest and parts of the Northwest of what is now the United States. The annexation of this land occurred just around 170 years ago.
There is not a single person born in Mexico who does not view the land annexed by the United States as occupied land that belongs to Mexico.
Mexicans choose to ignore that the land taken by the United States did not belong to Mexico. This land belonged to the original North American natives. The Mexica Empire (modernly referred to as "Aztec Empire") was concentrated in the areas surrounding Mexico City. It never extended beyond what we know as Mesoamerica (central part of modern Mexico).
The Spanish took this land from its original inhabitants. Spain incorporated this land as part of the "Virreinato de Nueva España" (Viceroyalty of New Spain), which included Mexico.
When Mexico became independent from Spain, Mexico inherited this land as part of the Virreinato. This land, legitimately, has never belonged to Mexico.
Nevertheless, Mexicans view this land as their own.
When Mexicans talk about going to the United States, they do not say, "I am going to the United States", much less "America". They say, "I am going north".
Mexico knows that Mexico is not a country strong enough to battle the strongest nation in the world, the United States. Instead, Mexico has devised a way to engage in the Reconquista of the lands "lost" to the United States by utilizing the same element that it is using to siphon dollars out of the United States. Poverty!
The Mexican oligarchy has created a philosophy that will allow Mexico to extend its tentacles to all parts of the United States. Especially the Southwest.
The Mexican government considers every person who is of Mexican ancestry, even if not born in Mexico, under its jurisdiction.
On March 20, 1998, Mexico amended articles 32 and 37 of the Mexican Constitution. These amendments permit Mexican citizens "by birth” to retain their Mexican citizenship, even if they have citizenship in another country.
Mexican citizens who have United States citizenship can vote in United States elections. They also can vote in Mexican federal elections. These dual citizens, if legal by the Mexican state, can also vote in Mexican state elections even though they reside in another country. In the United States, you can only vote for a state election if you are a resident of such state.
Who is a Mexican citizen?
Article 30 of the Mexican Constitution says that a Mexican "by birth" is one who:
1) Was born in Mexico, regardless of the nationality of his or her parents.
2) Was born in a foreign country of Mexican parents, or a Mexican father,
or a Mexican mother. or,
3) Born on a Mexican ship or airline.
Article 30 does not define what "Mexican" is. Mexican is not a race, but a nationality. Is a person who was born in the United States, but whose parents came from Mexico, a Mexican? What if his grandparents came from Mexico, are their children and grandchildren Mexican, even if all of them were born in the United States?
If a person was born in the United States, of one parent who came from Mexico, and one parent who has Irish ancestry, is that person Mexican? According to Article 30, section 2, they all are Mexican.
The reason given by Mexican politicians is that dual citizenship for Mexicans is necessary for the Mexican government to protect Mexican citizens living in the United States, who are subject to racism, ill treatment, labor injustice, and anti-immigrant policies.
(Footnote 1, in Spanish).

Dual citizenship is not automatic. The person who wants Mexican citizenship must file a petition and present proof of qualifications.
Dual loyalty:
The United States also permits dual citizenship, not by constitutional decree, but by judicial interpretation of the Constitution (Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253, 1967).
The Naturalization Oath of Allegiance to the United States of America says:

"I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen;
that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God."

Merriam-Webster dictionary defines "loyal" as unswerving in alliance to constituted authority, as one’s country or sovereign.
If a Mexican citizen acquires citizenship in the United States, how can this person have unswerving alliance to two countries? The citizenship oath requires that such person renounce allegiance to Mexico. How can that person be a dual citizen?
Nevertheless, the United States government has not addressed such inconsistency.
I doubt that the Mexican-Americans who were born in the United States will petition for dual citizenship. Mexican-Americans are fiercely loyal to the United States. Unless there is a business reason, they will not petition for Mexican citizenship.
Generally, this group has always viewed itself as American. Their loyalty is to the United States. They know very little about Mexico. Most of them have never heard the Mexican National Anthem and would not recognize it if they did. The connection to Mexico is mostly through food and music. Particularly those who were born prior to the 1950’s. Before the 1950’s, it was the practice of the parents not to teach their children Spanish so that they could integrate with the rest of the United States population.
My opinion is that the Mexican oligarchy created the dual citizenship scheme to have its hooks in the United States and create a net to solidify their plan of Reconquista.
Let us see what has happened:
• In 1970, the number of Mexico-born population in the United States was under 1 million.
• By 1980, the number of Mexico-born population in the United States more than doubled to
over 2 million.
• In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act, which gave amnesty to millions of
illegal immigrants, passed.
• By 1990, the number of Mexico-born population in the United States more than doubled
from that of 1980 to over 4 million.
• In 1998, the Mexican government permitted dual citizenship.
• By 2000, the number of Mexico-born population in the United States more than doubled
from that of 1990 to more than 9 million.
• By 2010, the number of Mexico-born population in the United States had increased to more
than 11 million.
(See Chapter 3).
The number of Mexico-born immigrants in the United States levelled off after 2010, but by 2015, it again increased, to 12.1 million.
(Footnote 2).

According to research by the Pew Research Center, in 2012 there were 33.7 million persons identified as "Mexican-origin" in the United States. This includes 22.3 Million born in the United States and 11.4 million born in Mexico (legal and illegal). In 2012, the population of Mexico was 120.8 million.
By amending its constitution, Mexico grants millions of United States citizens the "opportunity" to obtain "protection", by the Mexican government, in the United States.

Let us consider what these statistics and the extended protection by the Mexican government mean:

Mexicans residing in Mexico in 2012
"Mexicans" residing in the U.S. in 2012
Total "Mexicans"

If this is correct, this means that almost one-quarter of Mexicans live in the United States, and that there is a potential for more than 33 million residents of the United States to pledge loyalty to another country.
The Mexican oligarchy miscalculates if it thinks that all people of Mexican ancestry who qualify for the dual citizenship will petition for it.
However, in the late 1960’s, during the Civil Rights Movement, and during the 1970’s, a new consciousness awoke among Mexican-Americans. This is when the concept of Chicano, "Brown Power", and Aztlan arouse.
Chicano is a person of Mexican ancestry, born in the United States, who has mostly indigenous traits, and who adheres to a culture independent from the mainstream United States culture.
Aztlan is a mythical place from where the Nahua people migrated during the fourteenth century and conquered the lands around Mexico City. (Mexico is named after the Nahua Mexica tribe, which is, in modern times, referred to as Aztec).
Chicanos believe that Aztlan is the Southwest of the United States, precisely the land that the United States took from Mexico in the nineteenth century.
Chicanos also believe that the indigenous people, from the Southwest of the United States to Central America, are the true owners of this land, and that the United States and Mexico should return all this land to them, and exclude all people of European ancestry, even if Mexican.
Not all Mexican-Americans are Chicano. Chicano is a matter of self-identity. You are Chicano if you think you are Chicano.
Generally, Spanish looking Mexican-Americans do not see themselves as Chicano. Chicanos, normally, look Mesoamerican native.
There is a movement in Mexico named Frente Nacionalista de Mexico (Mexican Nationalist Front). This is a right-wing society formed in 2006. It aims to reject any North American (United Estates) cultural influences, to have the land "occupied" by the United States returned to Mexico, and to establish the "Second Mexican Empire".
When Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821, the Virreinato de Nueva España (New Spain) extended from Oregon and New Mexico, to Panama. This huge mass of land became Mexico.
However, Central America never accepted this union. By 1823, Central America become independent from Mexico, fragmenting itself into various republics.
In 1841, the states of Yucatan, Quintana Roo, and Campeche seceded from Mexico and became the Republic of Yucatan. This independence lasted until 1848, when the Caste Wars occurred. The Caste Wars were an effort by the Maya population to exterminate anyone who was not a pure Maya. Alarmed, the government of Yucatan (non-Maya) rejoined Mexico for protection.
Southern Mexico and Central America pertain to another people, the Maya, which never became part of the Aztec Empire.
In spite of this, the Frente Nacionalista wants all this territory, from Oregon to Panama, to become one country, Mexico!
This Front wants to reinstate the "glory and splendor" of the Aztec Empire, which existed only around what is now Mexico City.
Distribution of "Mexicans" in the United States:
For this section, I will use the term "Mexican" for all those of Mexican ancestry, born in the United States, or not.
The U.S. Census Bureau includes "Mexicans" in the category of "Latinos". The U.S. Census Bureau does not indicate the number of Mexicans in each state.
The Pew Research Center statistics available indicate that Mexicans compose 64% of all Latinos (or Hispanics).
(Footnote 3).
(Footnote 4).

By applying the factor of 64% to data obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau, I have prepared the following exhibit regarding the Latino and the Mexican population on the states formerly part of Mexico.
Per U.S. Census, percentage of population (2014 estimates):
(Footnote 5).

Total population Latinos Mexicans
    (64%) of Latinos
 Border with Mexico:
26,956,958 38.6% 24.7%
 New Mexico
2,085,572 47.7% 30.5%
6,731,484 30.5% 19.5%
38,802,500 38.6% 24.7%
 No border with Mexico:
5,355,866 21.2% 13.6%
3,970,239 12.5% 8.0%
2,942,902 13.5% 8.6%

The computations skew the percentages of Mexicans per state because the 64% factor represents Latinos in the entire United States.
Most Mexicans concentrate in the Southwest of the United States.
An article in the Los Angeles Times, dated July 8, 2015, inform us that Hispanics outnumber "whites" in California. The article says that, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2014, California had about 14.99 million Latinos, compared to 14.92 million "whites". (I place quotation marks on "whites" because I assume that, the reference to whites do not include the Mexicans who are white also).
The article also states. "California is a harbinger of the national rise in Latinos. The nation's Latino population has grown 57% since 2000, when Latinos numbered 35.3 million. Latinos accounted for most of the nation's growth — 56% — from 2000 to 2010, according to the Pew Research Center.”
(Footnote 6).

I do not want to bore you with more statistics; however, statistics give us a measurable portrayal of what is happening.
Let me incorporate a few more:

Total population
San Antonio, TX
Houston, TX
Dallas, TX
Austin, TX
Albuquerque, NM
Las Cruces, NM
Phoenix, AZ
Tucson, AZ
Nogales, AZ
Las Vegas, NV
Portland, OR

You get the idea!
Interstate 5 in California starts at the border between California, in the United States, and Baja California, Mexico.
Interstate 5 is like a river of immigrants that flows thru California from Tijuana, Mexico, cataracts into Los Angeles County creating a huge lake, and then it continues northwards all the way to Canada. It has contributories that empty into Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino counties.
This river of immigrants consists mostly of immigrants from Mexico, and some from Central America, most of them illegal.
These immigrants have settled in cities alongside Interstate 5, creating effectively, a nation within a nation.
Let us follow Interstate 5 from the border to Los Angeles:

City Percentage of Latinos
San Diego County:
Chula Vista
National City
San Diego
Orange County:
Santa Ana
Los Angeles County:
Santa Fe Springs
Pico Rivera
South Gate
Huntington Park
Bell Gardens
East Los Angeles

The U.S. Census Bureau informs us that the estimated population in Los Angeles County for 2014 is 10,116,705. The estimated percentage for Latinos is 48.4%, or 4,896,485 (lets us round it up to 5 million). There is a large Central American population in Los Angeles County. The majority of them in the Northeast part, in San Fernando Valley. The overwhelming majority of Mexican ancestry clusters in the Eastern part of the county. We can safely assume that the percentages shown in the cities above are of Mexican ancestry.
The population of Latinos, in Los Angeles County alone, is close to the populations of Finland, Norway, or Ireland, separately, in numbers.
If you travel through the cities in Los Angeles County noted above, you will feel as if you were in another country. The cities are contiguous. This area is a nation within a nation. Spanish is not only the main language, sometimes is the only language with which you may be able to use to communicate.
Side note: The percentage of the Latino population in Chicago, Ill. was 28.9% in 2010.
Mexicans are divided into two main groups:
1) Mexicans born in the United States and those residing legally in the United States prior to 1980. 2) Those who arrived after 1980.
Prior to 1980, the number of Mexico-born immigrants was less than 2 million in the entire country. Most of them immigrated here legally. There was a sense among them that they had immigrated to a foreign country and that they had to adopt to the manners and modes of the adopted country and integrate. They were also better educated.
From 1980 to 2015, the Mexico-born immigrants, compelled to flee Mexico by the economic atmosphere created by the Mexican government, grew by 10 million. Most of them immigrating illegally. These illegal immigrants represent the most desperate of the Mexican poor, and have little education.
Most people in the United States have the idea that Mexicans come to work in the fields. That is in the past. Most Mexicans now immigrate to urban areas where they have social support ready by those who came first, and clubs created for such purposes.
Los Angeles County is a nation by itself. Illegal Mexican aliens arrive, and they go to work for other illegal Mexican aliens. Nobody requests documentation. There is an immense underground economy. The members of this underground economy do not report income therefore, do not pay income taxes, but do receive welfare, since they qualify as low, or no income, recepients.
Another way to bleed America!
Take a stroll by the cities mentioned above, you will think that you are in Latin America.
"Hold on!", you might think. "This is what all immigrants do. They create their Little Italy, their China Town, their Korean Town, their Irish and Jewish communities".
True, however, none of those groups came from countries contiguous to the United States, nor lost territory to the United States, nor believes that the Southwest of the United States actually belongs to Mexico.
By personal knowledge, most Mexican immigrants are not interested in learning English. I know many who have lived in the United States for over half a century and their English is, at best, rudimentary. My mother was one of them, and she came to this country in her late thirties.
I have an on-going battle with one of my Mexican immigrant business clients. He is a U.S citizen and has lived in this country for over 50 years. He owns a grocery store and distributes flyers every week with the weekly specials. The flyer has pictures of the product, for example, bananas. The flyer has the name "PLATANO" first, in 14-point letters, then the word "BANANA" below that, in 10-point letters. I have suggested to him that both words should have the same point size, and that the English word "BANANA" should be first. He ignores me.
Instead of American flags, most Mexican immigrants honor Mexican flags. You see their flags in their cars, in their homes, and in their political demonstrations.
Instead of integrating with the American culture, Mexicans are bringing Mexico to the United States.
The method now is to migrate by communities. A few individuals from a certain village will arrive first. Once established, they bring people from their own community and establish their own separate communities in the United States.
This phenomenon is what human geographers name "Migration Channel". This is the tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity. Examples: The connection between the city of Napizaro, Mexico and North Hollywood, USA, Aguililla, Mexico and Redwood City, USA.
(Footnote 7).

Thereis s large influx of Mixtec and Zapotec Indians from Oaxaca to California, specifically, San Diego North County. Read the article Welcome to Oaxacalifornia.
(Footnote 8).

There are several associations known as Federacion de Clubes Zacatecanos (Federation of Zacatecan Clubs) in several cities in the United States. Zacatecas is a state in Mexico.
The purpose of these associations is to provide support for immigrants from Mexico, primarily from Zacatecas, legal or illegal. These organizations have a function similar to the Underground Railroad Network that helped slaves escape to Canada and Mexico in the 19th Century. Except that these organizations work in reverse, they help bring railcar-loads of illegal immigrants to the United States.
The website of the largest one, Federacion de Clubes Zacatecanos del Sur de California (Federation of Zacatecan Clubs of Southern California), says that its members can attend English classes. However, the club wrote the entire website in Spanish. The few English words are in some paid advertisements.
The website also says, (direct quote) ". . . los migrantes pueden hacer por sus comunidades de origen lo que no hubieran podido de haberse quedado en Zacatecas". Translation: "The migrants can do for their communities of origin what they could not have done had they stayed in Zacatecas", and it alludes to the Three For One program mentioned in Chapter 4 (the scheme to bleed money from the United States and send it to the Mexican government).
This is a blatant inducement to leave their communities and come to colonize the United States.
In June of 2016, the website finally included the American flag; however, it is concealed by the Mexican flag which is in front of it.
This is insulting to our flag and to our country, and might be illegal. This is a tax-exempt organization whose main purpose is to colonize the United States!
(Footnote 9).

I could go on and on with examples. However, you do not need them.
The gist of all this is that Mexicans do not come to the United States to become Americans. They come here to colonize!
A swath of Mexican immigrants starts from the California\Mexico border on the west coast, and continues all the way to Canada. From California, this swath extends east to Texas.
In a few decades, they will be the overwhelming majority.
They do not intend to integrate with the American culture. They intend to keep their language, their culture, and to an extent, their religion, apart.
At the beginning of this chapter, I stated that the Spanish maintained their identity separate from the Moors. This self-identification as a separate group was the bond that energized them for the Reconquista of their peninsula.
The Reconquista of the land craved by Mexico already started!

The following are references to outside websites that support the data presented. If you visit them, you leave this website. You can return by clicking on arrow on top, left side.

1. Article in Spanish.

2. CIS Org.

3. Pew - Hispanics.

4. Hispanics in U.S.

5. U.S. Census - quick facts.

6. LA Times Article.

7. MIgration channel.

8. Oaxacalifornia.

9. Club Zacatecano.